Combat-Related PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in OEF/OIF Veterans with and without Traumatic Brain Injury 

Katie A. Ragsdale, Sandra M. Neer, Deborah C. Beidel, Christopher Frueh and Jeremy W. Stout 

Veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) are presenting with high rates of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical presentations of combat veterans with PTSD and TBI (N = 40) to those with PTSD only (N = 56).

Sleep Disturbances Among Combat Military Veterans: A Comparative Study Using Subjective and Objective Sleep Assessments 

Jeremy W. StoutDeborah C. BeidelCandice A. AlfanoFranklin Mesa, Benjamin Trachik and Sandra M. Neer.

The sleep characteristics of 37 military veterans and active-duty service members (17 with PTSD and 20 without PTSD) of recent wars were analyzed to determine if combat deployment, with its associated sleep restriction, may be an alternative explanation for the sleep complaints found among combat veterans with PTSD (as determined by PTSD Checklist Military Version scores).  

A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study of Trauma-Related Auditory and Olfactory Cues: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder or Combat Experience? 

Michael A. Gramlich, Sandra M. Neer, Deborah C. Beidel, Corey J. Bohil and Clint A. Bowers 

The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among U.S. veterans deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan necessitates the need for comprehensive assessment and treatment strategies. This study investigated the utility of a combat-related PTSD symptom provocation paradigm to elicit unique neurological responses across three groups: combat veterans with PTSD, combat veterans without PTSD and nonmilitary participants without PTSD.

Trauma Management Therapy

Multicomponent Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial 

Deborah C. Beidel, Christopher Frueh, Thomas W. Uhde, Nina Wonga and Janelle M. Mentrikoski  

This study examined the efficacy of a multicomponent cognitive behavioral therapy, Trauma Management Therapy, which combines exposure therapy and social emotional rehabilitation, to exposure therapy only in a group of male combat veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). 

The Efficacy of Trauma Management Therapy: A Controlled Pilot Investigation of a Three-Week Intensive Outpatient Program for Combat-Related PTSD 

Deborah C. Beidel, Christopher Frueh, Sandra M. Neer and Carl W. Lejuez 

Despite the 818.5% of returning Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation New Dawn veterans who are suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), few receive empirically supported treatments. Among those that do, the dropout rate is high and more than 50% retain their diagnosis after treatment. This study evaluated the efficacy of Trauma Management Therapy, delivered in three-week intensive outpatient format.

An Intensive Outpatient Treatment Program for Combat-Related PTSD: Trauma Management Therapy 

Deborah C. Beidel, Jeremy W. Stout, Sandra M. Neer, Christopher Frueh and Carl Lejuez  

An estimated 18.5% of veterans returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation New Dawn are suffering from posttraumatic stress or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The number of veterans and serviceduty personnel requesting VA health care services is increasing, and the VA’s ability to handle requests is dwindling. Thus, both the content of interventions and the format by which these services are delivered need to be reconceptualized. The authors present a multicomponent intervention program known as Trauma Management Therapy, a comprehensive, empirically supported treatment that can be delivered in an intensive, three-week outpatient format. 

Trauma Management Therapy with Virtual Reality Augmented Exposure Therapy for Combat-Related PTSD: A Randomized Controlled Trial 

Deborah C. Beidel, Christopher Frueh, Sandra M. Neer, Clint A. Bowers, Benjamin Trachik, Thomas W. Uhde and Anouk Grubaugh  

Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) realistically incorporates traumatic cues into exposure therapy and holds promise in the treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a randomized controlled trial of 92 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans and activeduty military personnel with combat-related PTSD, we compared the efficacy of Trauma Management Therapy to VRET, plus a psychoeducation control condition. 

Virtual Reality and Exposure Therapy

Olfactory Stimuli Increase Presence in Virtual Environments 

Benson G. Munyan III, Sandra M. Neer, Deborah C. Beidel and Florian Jentsch 

Exposure Therapy (EXP) is the most empirically supported treatment for anxiety and trauma-related disorders. EXP consists of repeated exposure to a feared object or situation in the absence of the feared outcome in order to extinguish associated anxiety. Studies have shown that scents can elicit emotionally charged memories, but no prior research has examined the effect of olfactory stimuli upon the patient’s sense of presence during simulated exposure tasks.  

Combat-Related Guilt and the Mechanisms of Exposure Therapy 

Benjamin Trachik, Clint Bowers , Sandra M. Neer, Vu Nguyen, Christopher Frueh and Deborah C. Beidel 

Exposure Therapy (EXP) is one of the most widely used and empirically supported treatments for PTSD; however, some researchers have questioned its efficacy with specific populations and in targeting specific symptoms. One such symptom, guilt, has garnered increased attention in the PTSD treatment literature, as it is associated with worse symptomatology and outcomes. The current study examined cognitive changes in guilt in response to intensive (three-week) and standard (17-week) Trauma Management Therapy (TMT), and the potential mechanisms underlying TMT treatment.

First Responders

Using a Mobile Application to Address Stress-Related Symptoms in Emergency Dispatchers

Emy Willis, Deborah C. Beidel, Clint Bowers and Sandra Neer

Emergency dispatchers report significant job stress, yet few controlled investigations examine their specific psychological complaints. Additionally, research examining the use of interventions directed at alleviating their work-related stress is limited. This study aims to examine the efficacy and feasibility of a mobile application (PTSD Coach) on various indicators of psychosocial well-being among emergency telecommunicator dispatchers.

In Print Only

Does traumatic brain injury attenuate the exposure therapy process? Behavior Therapy. 

Ragsdale, K.A., Gramlich, M.A., Beidel, D.C., Neer, S.M., Kitsmiller, E.G. & Morrison, K.I.  

Neurophysiological response to olfactory stimuli in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 

Bedwell, J.S., Bohil, C.J., Neider, M.B., Gramlich, M.A., Neer, S.M., O’Donnell, J.P. & Beidel, D.C